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In the three kinds of activities above, the role of "roi" (puppets) has not been fully mentioned in the art performances but just in entertainment and on a limited scale. Only in the stage that puppets can show their distinct creation as well as the capabilities in art performance.

Traditionally, Vietnamese puppets art performances are divided into two different types:

_ Water puppetry

_ Land puppetry

The classification, which literally translated from Vietnamese folk language, of the two categories above is only based on types of stage: while water-puppets are always performed on a stage built in ponds; land-puppets, on the other hand, have stage that is built on land. Basic-ally, both of these two art forms have the same principles, the same rules and the same features they are only different in details.

Water-puppetry art

The art of water puppetry originated in the Red River Delta and midland areas in the North of Vietnam. It has a closed connection with the material and spiritual life of people in water-cultivated areas such as Vietnam. As a rule, once hearing the flurries of drums or firecrackers exploding nearby manipulation room-Thuy Dinh- adults and children, men and women, young couples from everywhere, hurried gathered in front of the stage to enjoy the interesting and fantastic water puppetry shows.
Water puppetry art in Vietnam has dated back for nearly 1,00 years. The stage was always on natural ponds but they have moved indoors now. The puppets are made of light-wood and are manipulated from a room behind the stage through long bamboo poles and strings that are hidden under the water surface. To control the puppets, the puppeteers have to stand waist-deep in water. Because the stage is water surface; moreover, it is separated with manipulation room by a rattan curtain; the audiences can not see the puppeteers but the performance of puppets. One special thing in water puppetry art is the actions of puppets do not only depend on pole-and-string apparatus but also on the force of water as well as the system of rudders and floats in a "controlling machine" of the puppets. Plastic art has always played an important part in puppetry art performance. The appearances and the outfits of puppets also show out their gender, characteristics, age and social level. The action of puppets is
not decided firstly by puppeteers but by the work of plastic artists. Sometimes, the author and the director create the content or the message of the performance, however, it is the talent plastic artists who express and send them to the audiences. For example, the unchangeable faces as well as the slow and not natural actions of the puppets need to be given "breath" by none but the plastic artists. They are also the ones who create particular faces, which are suitable with the puppets’ characteristics.

"Chu Teu" in Vietnam puppetry art performance is known as a narrator with a plump body, peach-shaped hair. He is usually wearing a silver Khanh and underdressed. With an endless smile, Chu Teu sometimes is like a humorous person, the other times is like sympathetic friend of the audiences. Because of that particular appearance and personalities, Chu Teu is as a jester in Vietnamese puppetry stage. He uses his smile to taste the life, to criticize and laugh at all the inequalities and silly mistakes. He is a wonderful creation of the traditional artisans in puppetry guilds, a product of co-ordination among puppeteers, puppet-makers, sculptors, and lacquered painters. Thanks to that, he is
so successful in all kinds of jester in everyday life. Chu Teu has created a really strong impression in the audiences. In other art performance stages in the world, we can also find the same kind of this
typical character like Chu Teu. They have not only typical characteristics but also particular appearances. And, of course, they’ve created very strong impression in the mind of people in those countries.

Although there are always differences among every culture in the world, the puppets in all countries are only the art instruments of puppeteers. Therefore, plot lines in puppetry art performances usually tend to be action-oriented as it beyond the ability of the puppets to convey emotional conflicts. Characters are not described in details too much to avoid being divergent. In a performance, characters do not appear continuously. Plot lines in the performances are developed by the mail characters. In another word, these characters play an important part in expressing the content of a performance.

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