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The traditional land puppet art has developed in every corner of the country, known by many names:

_ In the North: Oi, Loi, Oi Loi, Khoi Loi, Roi, Mua roi, Tro, Tro may…(Viet minorities), Moc Thau Hi (Nung minorities), Sluong Pat Lap (Tay minorities)…

_ In the South: Hat go, Hat hinh…

Land-puppet comprises five kinds: hand-puppets, pole-puppets, machinery-puppets, string-puppets and shadow-puppets.

Hand-puppets are rarely performed on the stage but in pagoda festivals. The hollowed-out heads are made of wood. When operating, puppeteers use long poles attached to the necks of the puppets or ware heads on their hands.

Pole-puppets are very popular, about 30-35 cm. The heads and the bodies are carved together. Heads consist of hair, ears, and hats. Wooden hands are connected with wrists. They are operated with bamboo poles; metal poles attached to the bodies or the wrists of the puppets under clothes. These puppets have no legs; therefore, legs are carved separately with the whole bodies and then put together. In some areas, puppets are big and made of bamboo. Used in worshipping and burned right after. Bana ethnic minorities create big wooden dummies used in funerals and then left in the tomb. On the stage, soft strings and poles are used to control small parts of the puppets.

Machinery-puppets are very popular in games, toys and stage. The whole bodies are carved with wood. Each part separates with the other and was put together with joints. Lacquer is used instead of clothes. Machinery-puppets are controlled by strings and poles and accompanied with hand-puppets and pole-puppets. Especially, they are used in children toys, kite puppets, wind-puppets and so on.

String-puppets appeared in the border of Cao Bang called Sluongpat Lap or Moc Thau Hi. They have wooden heads, wooden arms but no legs, are operated by bamboo strings, silk strings or hemp strings. The stage is built on "choi"(cottage) in markets, or near casinos.
Shadow-puppets have been lately found. They originated from Kien Giang Province or From Cambodia, but it doesn’t exist now.

Vietnamese puppetry art has a close relationship with the international puppetry association, which has headquarter in France and other organizations: IIM (Research Institute of International Puppetry), ESNAM (The National College of Puppetry Art), and PUCK (Puppetry Magazine).

Vietnamese puppetry art is widely introduced, especially the water puppetry, in international puppetry festivals, abroad performances and books, newspapers as well.

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